TEI by Example: Pedagogical Approaches Used in the Construction of Online Digital Humanities Tutorials

poster / demo / art installation
  1. 1. Ron Van den Branden

    Centrum voor Teksteditie en Bronnenstudie (KANTL)

  2. 2. Melissa Terras

    University College London

  3. 3. Edward Vanhoutte

    Centrum voor Teksteditie en Bronnenstudie (KANTL)

Work text
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Over the past 20 years, the TEI (Text Encoding Initiative)
has developed comprehensive guidelines for scholarly text
encoding (TEI, 2007). In order to expand the user base of TEI,
it is important that tutorial materials are made available to
scholars new to textual encoding. However, there is a paucity
of stand-alone teaching materials available which support
beginner’s level learning of TEI. Materials which are available
are not in formats which would enable tutorials to be provided
in blended learning environments (Allan, 2007) such as
classroom settings, for instance, as part of a University course,
or allow individuals to work through graded examples in their
own time: the common way of learning new computational
techniques through self-directed learning.
As a result, there is an urgent need for a suite of TEI tutorials
for the self directed learner. The “TEI by Example” project is
currently developing a range of freely available online tutorials
which will walk individuals through the different stages in
marking up a document in TEI. In addition to this, the tutorials
provide annotated examples of a range of texts, indicating
the editorial choices that are necessary to undertake when
marking up a text in TEI. Linking to real examples from projects
which utilise the TEI reaffi rms the advice given to learners.
The aims and focus of the project were documented in Van
den Branden et al. (2007), whereas the aim of this poster is
to detail the editorial, technological, and pedagogical choices
the authors had to make when constructing the tutorials, to
prepare stand- alone tutorials of use to the Digital Humanities
audience, and beyond.
TEI by Example is effectively an implementation of problem
based learning, an effi cient and useful approach to teaching
skills to individuals in order for them to undertake similar
tasks themselves, successfully. The literature on this is wide
and varied (for seminal literature regarding the effectiveness
of this pedagogic approach see Norman and Schmidt (1992);
Garrison (1997); and Savin-Baden and Wilkie (2006)). There
has been particular consideration as to the effectiveness of
example and problem based learning when learning computer
programming (for example, see Mayer (1981), Mayer (1988),
Kelleher and Pausch (2005)). Additionally, another wide
area of academic research is how to develop online tutorial
materials successfully (Stephenson, 2001; Jochems et al., 2003).
Understanding the nature of online tutorials, and grappling
with the pedagogical issues these technologies offer us, was a
core issue when beginning to implement the TEI by Example
In order to develop the TEI by Example tutorials, the team
had to understand the technical possibilities and limitations
afforded by the online environment, and decide how best to
integrate these into the tutorial materials. By juxtaposing static
(pages, articles) and dynamic (quizzes, validation) functionality,
the project aims to provide a holistic learning environment
for those new to the TEI. Further linking to other examples
provided by the community extends the remits of the project
into another, alternative viewpoint by which to start learning
the TEI, aside from the TEI guidelines themselves (TEI, 2007).
Additionally, the role of user testing will be explored to feature
feedback and comments from the TEI user community, to aid
in the development of intuitive tutorial materials.
This poster will report on progress, problems, and potential
solutions in developing teaching materials for the TEI,
demonstrate the tutorials developed, and highlight areas in
which the TEI and Digital Humanities communities can aid in
the design, and implementation, of materials for students and
Allan, Barbara (2007). Blended Learning. Tools for teaching and
training. London: Facet Publishing.
Garrison, D. R. (1997). “Self Directed Learning, Towards a
Comprehensive Model”. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(1): 18-
Jochems, W., van Merrienboer, J. and, Koper, R. (eds.) (2003).
Integrated E-Learning: Implications for Pedagogy, Technology and
Organization (Open & Flexible Learning). London: Routledge
Kelleher, C. and Pausch, R. (2005). “Lowering the Barriers to
Programming: A Taxonomy of Programming Environments
and Languages for Novice Programmers”, ACM Computing
Surveys, June 2005, 37(2): 83-137.
Mayer, R. (1981). “The Psychology of How Novices Learn
Computer Programming” ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR),
13(1): 121 - 141. Mayer, R. (1988). Teaching and Learning Computer Programming:
Multiple Research Perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates Inc.
Norman, G. R., and Schmidt, H. G. (1992). “The psychological
basis of problem-based learning: a review of the evidence”.
Acad Med, 67(9): 557-565
Savin-Baden, M. and Wilkie, K. (2006). Problem based learning
online. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Stephenson, J. (ed.) (2001). Teaching and Learning Online:
Pedagogies for New Technologies. Abingdon: Routledge.
TEI (2007). Burnard, L. and Bauman, S. (eds). “TEI P5
Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange”
Van den Branden, R., Vanhoutte, E., Terras, M. (2007).
“TEI by Example”. Digital Humanities 2007, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, June 2007. http://www.

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Conference Info


ADHO - 2008

Hosted at University of Oulu

Oulu, Finland

June 25, 2008 - June 29, 2008

135 works by 231 authors indexed

Conference website: http://www.ekl.oulu.fi/dh2008/

Series: ADHO (3)

Organizers: ADHO

  • Keywords: None
  • Language: English
  • Topics: None