Centre for English Corpus Linguistics - Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven (Catholic University of Louvain)
Annotated corpora provide a potentially much
more powerful platform for linguistic analysis
than raw corpora, not least because they enable “a
concordance program, for example, to search for
grammatical abstractions (such as instances of the
passive voice, of the progressive aspect, of nounnoun sequences, etc.) rather than words” (G.
Leech 1991:19). With taggers becoming widely
available, the automatic analysis of grammatical
features will soon become the rule rather than the
exception. In fact, as suggested by J. Sinclair
(1992:381) the increasing size of corpora is making full automatization essential. In this light it
would seem necessary to be able to assess the
reliability of automated retrieval. Very few studies
to date have addressed this issue, however. One
notable exception is C. Ball (1994), who warns
researchers against the pitfalls of automated text
analysis. She claims that text processing tools
“must be used with a full awareness of their limitations, and should be coupled with or replaced by
manual methods when appropriate”. She also
stresses the need for “microscopic studies of individual phenomena” before embarking on largescale macroscopic ones. My paper is directly in
keeping with Ball’s line of thinking. It aims to
assess the reliability of automated text analysis by
providing a microscopic study of one particular
grammatical phenomenon, the passive construction.
My investigation of the passive is part of the
International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE)
project based at the University of Louvain. The
aim of the project is to identify the differences in
grammar, lexis and discourse which distinguish
advanced learner writing from native speaker writing (see S. Granger 1993 & 1994). In the first part
of my paper I will describe the ICLE corpus, a 1
million+ word computerized learner corpus of
argumentative writing by EFL learners from 11
different mother tongue backgrounds (Chinese,
Czech, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Japanese, Polish, Russian, Spanish and Swedish), and the
LOCNESS corpus (Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays), which contains comparable writing
from native English writers. Then I will briefly
tackle some of the methodological issues which
arise from the compilation and analysis of computerized learner corpora. I will demonstrate that (1)
the heterogeneity of learner language calls for the
adoption of strict corpus design criteria; and (2)
learner corpora call for a new type of contrastive
approach, called Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis
(CIA), which involves comparing native language
and learner language as well as comparing learner
languages to each other (see S. Granger forthcoming). The current investigation forms part of a
project aimed at automating the CIA approach.
In the second part of my presentation I will justify
my choice of grammatical variable and discuss the
particular difficulties it poses for automated retrieval. One of the fields in which the passive has
proved to be a significant variable is that of text
typology. The passive is one of the major features
in D. Biber’s (1988,1992) automated multidimensional analysis of linguistic variation. Frequent
use of the passive is shown to correlate with discourse that is “abstract and technical in content,
and formal in style” (D. Biber 1988:111). Another
field which stands to benefit from studies of the
passive is that of first and second language instruction, which has traditionally presented the passive
as an indicator of weak and inefficient writing.
This prescriptive approach is still found in most
writing textbooks and usage guides and has been
adopted by current grammar and style checkers,
which systematically flag all instances of passive
forms and suggest replacing them by their active
counterparts. Several recent studies, however,
have begun to discuss the passive in a more positive light. In his investigation of ESL learner writing, P. Kameen (1983) finds a high correlation
between incidence of the passive voice and scores
assigned to compositions, with ‘good’ writers
using significantly more passives than ‘bad’ writers. He concludes that “mean incidence of passive
voice seems to be a reliable indicator of both
syntactic maturity and rated quality of writing”.
The format of the ICLE corpus enables us to look
at low/high passive use in learner writing from a
different, but complementary angle, namely that
of the relationship between frequency of use of the
passive and possible influence from the mother
tongue, by comparing the frequency of the passive
in learner writing from several different mother
The passive thus appears to be a potentially interesting candidate for automated retrieval. It is also
a particularly challenging one however, because
‘be + past participle’ (be Ved) is a fuzzy structure,
which may display various degrees of adjectivalness and several types of alternation with the
active. In a previous study of the passive in spoken
English (Granger 1983) I distinguish no fewer that
seven different categories of be Ved, only one of
which displays the two features generally associated with the passive voice: (a) verbal rather than
adjectival status; and (b) direct alternation to a
semantically equivalent active structure. The seven categories are illustrated in examples (1) to (7).
(1) That attitude was maintained by the government in the further nine days of debates in the
Lords. (2) I feel we’re all faced with this problem.
(3) I am very interested in poetry. (4) He’s never
finished his D.Phil., you see. I mean, it’s nearly
finished. (5) You’re not supposed to kick that. (6)
When we knew without doubt that the war situation was very, very complicated, we left the countryside. (7) I feel I’m geared up to working, you know.
It is the category of ‘true passives’, illustrated in
the first example, which is of interest in variation
studies. The ‘non-passives’ (cf examples 2-7),
which account for approximately one third of the
be Ved constructions in my study, do not show
significant variation across text categories. It is
also the category of ‘true passives’ that is relevant
for SLA specialists. P. Kameen (1983:170), for
example, explicitly excludes ‘stative passives’
such as “I am interested in the results” and “My
coat is torn”. All this shows that in assessing
automated retrieval of passives, it is necessary to
consider not only the number but also the type of
retrieved be Ved forms.
The third section of my presentation will be devoted to the microscopic study of the passive. It will
be based on a corpus of ca. 50,000 words composed of native and learner data extracted from LOCNESS and ICLE respectively. The analysis will
involve two stages: a purely manual one, in which
all the ‘true passives’ will be retrieved from the
data, and a fully automated one, in which all the
instances of the Aux(pass) tag will be retrieved
from the TOSCA-tagged version of the corpus.
The results of the two types of retrieval will be
compared both quantitatively (number of retrieved forms) and qualitatively (type of retrieved
forms). Automated retrieval will be assessed in
terms of precision (ie the proportion of retrieved
material that is relevant) and recall (ie the proportion of relevant information that was retrieved) (cf.
C. Ball 1994:295). One key objective will be to
establish whether the differences in passive frequency between the native speakers and the different categories of learners revealed by the manual
analysis are also brought out by the automatic
analysis. Particular attention will be paid to the
passive forms which escape automated analysis. I
will demonstrate that a sizeable proportion of these forms belong to some well-defined categories,
notably that of ‘elliptical passives’ (eg to be created and destroyed; is not dealt with as it should be)
and ‘complex passives’ (eg be allowed/obliged/expected to do something). I will show that
the recall rate of the automated analysis can be
improved if appropriate ‘repair mechanisms’ designed to recover these well-defined categories are
applied by the analyst at a post-editing stage.
In my conclusion I will claim that, for a whole
range of grammatical phenomena, the analyst has
much to gain from a small-scale preliminary manual investigation. This will ensure that he effectively understands the theoretical underpinnings
of the automated analysis. It will also help him
assess the program’s reliability and devise mechanisms intended to bring the automated analysis in
line with his own research requirements.
Ball C. 1994. Automated Text Analysis: Cautionary Tales, Literary and Linguistic Computing, Vol 9, Nr 4, 295-302.
Biber D. 1988. Variation across Speech and Writing, Cambridge University Press.
Biber D. 1992. On the Complexity of Discourse
Complexity: A Multidimensional Analysis,
Discourse Processes 15, 133-163.
Granger S. 1983. The be + past participle construction in spoken English with special emphasis
on the passive, North Holland Linguistic Series 49, Elsevier: Amsterdam, New York &
Granger S. 1993. The International Corpus of
Learner English, in: J. Aarts, P. de Haan & N.
Oostdijk (eds) English Language Corpora: Design, Analysis and Exploitation, Rodopi: Amsterdam & Atlanta, 57-69.
Granger S. 1994. The Learner Corpus: A Revolution in Applied Linguistics, English Today 39,
Vol 10, Nr 3, 25-29.
Granger S. Forthcoming. From CA to CIA and
back: an integrated contrastive approach to
computerized bilingual and learner corpora, in
K. Aijmer, B. Altenberg & M. Johansson (eds)
Languages in Contrast, Lund Studies in English, Lund University Press.
Kameen P. 1983. Syntactic skill and ESL writing
quality, in: A. Freedman, I. Pringle & J. Yalden
(eds) Learning to write: First Language/Second Language, Longman: London & New
Leech G. 1991. The State of the Art in Corpus
Linguistics, in K. Aijmer & B. Altenberg (eds)
English Corpus Linguistics, Longman: London & New York, 8-29. Sinclair J.
1992. The Automatic Analysis of Corpora, in:
J. Svartvik (ed) Directions in Corpus Linguistics, Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin & New York,
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