Department of Philosophy - University of Bergen
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, World Wide Web Consortium (W3.org)
Graduate School of Library and Information Science (GSLIS) - University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Department of Linguistics and Comparative Literature - University of Bergen
Before the advent of standards for generic markup, the lack of publicly documented and generally
accepted standards made exchange and reuse of electronic
documents and document processing software difficult and expensive.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
became an international standard in 1986. But it was only
in 1993, with the introduction of the World Wide Web and its SGML-inspired markup language HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language), that generic markup started to gain widespread acceptance in networked
publishing and communication.
In 1998, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
released XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a
simplified subset of SGML, aimed at retaining HTML’s simplicity for managing Web documents, while exploiting more of SGML’s power and flexibility. A large family of applications and related specifications has since emerged
around XML. The scope of XML processing and the complexity of its documentation now surpasses its
Although proprietary formats (like PostScript, PDF, RTF etc.) are still widely in use, there has been an explosion of markup languages and applications based on XML. Today, XML is not only an essential part of the enabling technology underlying the Web, but also plays a crucial
role as exchange format in databases, graphics and
multimedia applications in sectors ranging from industry,
over business and administration, to education and
For all the developments in XML since 1998, one thing that has not changed is the understanding of XML documents as serializations of tree structures
conforming to the constraints expressed in the document’s
DTD (Document Type Definition) or some form of schema. This seems very natural, and on our analysis the tight
integration of linear form (notation), data structure and constraint language is one important key to XML’s
Notwithstanding XML’s many strengths, there are problem
areas which invite further research on some of the
fundamental assumptions of XML and the document models associated with it. XML strongly emphasizes
and encourages a hierarchical document model, which can be validated using a context-free grammar (or
other grammars that encourage a constituent structure
interpretation, like context sensitive and regular grammars).
Consequently, it is a challenge to represent in XML
anything that does not easily lend itself to representation
by context-free or constituent structure grammars, such as overlapping or fragmented elements, and multiple co-existing complete or partial alternative structures or orderings. For the purpose of our work, we call such structures complex structures, and we call documents containing such structures complex documents.
Complex structures are ubiquitous in traditional
documents — in printed as well as in manuscript sources.
Common examples are associated with the physical
organization of the document and the compositional
structure of the text, in other words, such things as
pages, columns and lines on the one hand, and chapters,
sections and sentences on the other. Sentences and direct speech tend to overlap in prose, verse lines and sentences in poetry, speeches and various other phenomena in drama. Complex structures occur frequently also in databases, computer games, hypertext and computer-based literature.
In the last few years problems pertaining to complex structures have received increasing attention, resulting in proposals for
- conventions for tagging complex structures by existing
notations, by extending such notations, or by
designing entirely new notations;
- alternative data structures;
- explications of the semantic relationships cued by markup in a form that is more easily machine-
The MLCD (Markup Languages for Complex Documents) project aims to integrate such alternative approaches by developing both an alternative notation, a data structure and a constraint language which as far as possible is compatible with and retains the strengths of XML-based markup, yet solves the problems with representation and processing of complex structures.
MLCD started in 2001 and is expected to complete its work in 2007. The project is a collaboration between a group of researchers based at several different institutions. The remainder of this paper presents an interim report from the project
One of the early achievements of MLCD was the specification of the GODDAG (Generalized
Ordered-Descendant Directed Acyclic Graph) structure.
It was originally based on the realization that overlap
(which was the first kind of complex structure we
considered) can be represented simply as multiple
A GODDAG is a directed acyclic graph in which each node is either a leaf node, labeled with a character string, or a nonterminal node, labeled with a generic identifier.
Directed arcs connect nonterminal nodes with each other and with leaf nodes. No node dominates another node both directly and indirectly, but any node may be
dominated by any number of other nodes.
We distinguish a restricted and a generalized form of GODDAG. Conventional XML trees satisfy the
requirements of generalized as well as restricted GODDAGs.
In addition, restricted GODDAGs lend themselves to
representation of documents with concurrent hierarchies
or arbitrarily overlapping elements, whereas generalized GODDAGs also allow for a convenient representation of documents with multiple roots, with alternate orderings, and discontinuous or fragmented elements.
The similarities between trees and GODDAGs allow
similar methods of interpreting the meaning of markup:
properties can be inherited from a parent, overridden by a descendant, and so on. There is some chance for conflict and confusion, since with multiple parents, it is possible that different parents have different and
Recent work has revealed a weakness in the current
specification of GODDAG, which leads to problems with
the representation of discontinuous elements. In the full version of this paper we will present the results of our work towards a solution to these problems.
It is always possible to construct GODDAGs from XML documents. In the general case, they will be trees, which are subsets of GODDAGs. It is also possible to construct GODDAGs from the various mechanisms customarily used in order to represent complex structures
in XML. However, these mechanisms depend on
application-specific processing and vocabularies, and tend to be cumbersome.
Thus, one may either try to establish standards for the
representation of complex structures in XML, or provide
an alternative notation which lends itself to a more straightforward representation of complex structures. We believe that these options are complimentary, and that both should be pursued.
Thus, we have defined an alternative notation to XML, TexMECS. The basic principles of its design are:
- For documents that exhibit a straightforward
hierarchical structure, TexMECS is isomorphic to XML.
- Every TexMECS document is translatable into a GODDAG structure without application-specific processing.
- Every GODDAG structure is representable as a
A particular advantage of TexMECS is a simple and straightforward notation for what we have called
We also plan to design algorithms for translating widely recognized XML conventions for representation of complex structures into GODDAGs, and vice versa. In the full version of this paper we will report on our latest work in this area.
One of the most important remaining tasks for the MLCD project is the identification of a constraint mechanism which relates to GODDAGs as naturally as constituent structure grammars relate to trees, which constitute a subset of GODDAGs. Constraint languages for XML documents exist in the form of XML DTDs, XML Schema, Relax NG and others. These methods invariably define context-free grammars allowing the representation of XML documents in the form of parse trees. However, since GODDAG structures are directed
acyclic graphs more general than trees, they cannot
easily be identified with parse trees based on context-free grammars.
Several possible ways forward exist and remain to be
explored. MLCD has decided to focus on two approaches,
one grammar-based and one predicate-based.
The grammar-based approach starts from the observation that GODDAGs can be projected into sets of tangled
trees. One way to achieve at least partial validation of complex documents, therefore, is to write grammars for each such tree and validate each projection against the appropriate grammar. Each such grammar will treat
some start- and end-tags in the usual way as brackets
surrounding structural units, but treat other start- and
end-tags as if they were empty elements. This allows some
measure of control over the interaction and overlapping of specific elements in different grammars; whether it provides enough control remains to be explored.
Another approach to validation is to abandon the notion of document grammars, and regard validation simply as the establishment of some set of useful invariants. A schema then takes the form of a set of predicates; the document is valid if and only if all of the required
predicates are true in that document. In the XML context, this approach is represented by Schematron. It is clear that it can also be applied to documents with complex structures, if the language used to formulate the required predicates is extended appropriately.
In the full version of this paper we will report on our attempts to pursue each of these two approaches.
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The effort to establish ADHO began in Tuebingen, at the ALLC/ACH conference in 2002: a Steering Committee was appointed at the ALLC/ACH meeting in 2004, in Gothenburg, Sweden. At the 2005 meeting in Victoria, the executive committees of the ACH and ALLC approved the governance and conference protocols and nominated their first representatives to the ‘official’ ADHO Steering Committee and various ADHO standing committees. The 2006 conference was the first Digital Humanities conference.
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